THE CONJUNCTION समुच्च्यबोधक
A word that is used to join together words or phrases or sentences is called a Conjunction.
वह शब्द जो दो शब्दों, दो वाक्यों और दो उपवाक्यों को जोड़े उसे Conjunction कहते है
(i) Amar and Ram are friends.
(ii) Amar is poor but he is happy.
(iii) Two and Two makes four.
(iv) I like tea or coffee.
(v) I will do or die.
(vi) Amar cannot walk because he is weak.
Types of Conjunction
There are three kinds of Conjunction :
1. Co-ordinating Conjunction
2. Sub-ordinating Conjunction
3. Correlative Conjunction
(i) Co-ordinating Conjunctions
A Conjunction which joins two same types or ranks of the sentences is called coordinating sentences.
Key to Remember
Nor ना ही
Yet तब भी
Amar and Ram went up the hill.
(ii) Subordinating Conjunctions
It join a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal clause (that is, to a clause of higher rank).
वह Conjunction जो एक principal clause और एक Dependent Clause को जोड़ता है उसे Subordinating Conjunction कहते है
although, because, since, unless etc.
I went swimming although it was cold.
Amar has car which runs on petrol.
List of Subordinating Conjunction
Who | Why | Whom | Which | Whose | When
Where | How | What | While | Than | Till | Until
Unless | Before | After | Because| If | As if
As that | As long as | As than | As much as
Though | Although | Whether | Even if
iii) Correlative Conjunction
A conjunction which is used in pairs to join alternatives or equal elements.
वह Conjunction जो हमेशा जोड़े में इस्तेमाल किये जाते है उसे Correlative Conjunction कहते है
2. Either …or
4. Not only….but also
8. Rather …….than
9. No sooner…..than
Co – Ordinating Conjunction के प्रकार
Co-ordinating Conjunctions are of four kinds :
a) Cumulative Conjunction
which merely add one statement or fact to another;
b) Adversative Conjunction
which express opposition or contrast between two statements;
c) Disjunctive Conjunction
which express a choice between two alternatives;
d) Illative Conjunction
which express an inference;
Sub Ordinating Conjunction के प्रकार
It may be classified according to their meaning, as follows :
1) Time :
When, Whenever, While, As, Before, Eve, After, Since, Until, Till.
She returned home after he had gone.
Sita found her frock where she had left it.
3) Cause or Reason :
Because, Since, As, That.
He will pass the examination because he has worked hard.
4) Purpose :
That(in order that) , Lest.
He worked hard lest he should fail in the exam.
5) Result or Consequence :
He was so tired that he could scarcely stand.
6) Condition :
If, Unless, Whether.
You cannot succeed unless you work hard.
7) Comparison :
Ram is more Intelligent than Amar.
8) Extent or Manner :
You may do as you please.
Some Facts about Conjunctions
1. A conjunction is never connected with an object.
2. A conjunction never qualifies a word.
3. “Fanboys” is an easy way to the coordinating conjunctions.
4. A conjunction is used to join together words or groups of words.
5. A conjunction can be one word such as and, or pairs if words, such as either… or.
6. Conjunctions join related words or ideas, and they show relationships between ideas.
7. Conjunctions can show additions, contrasts, causes results, and choices
8. Coordinating conjunctions join ideas of equal importance.
9. The difference between correlative conjunctions and coordinating conjunctions is that correlative conjunctions work in paid.
10. A series is a list of three or more people, places, things, or ideas.
11. You can use some coordinating conjunctions to connect items in a series.
Commor Error Based on Conjunctions
1. No sooner did (a)/ he announce the (b)/ tour the children (c)/ screamed with great joy. (d)/ No error
2. He is (a)/ known for (b)/ both his hard (c)/ work and intelligent. (d)/ No error
3. She is so lazy as (a)/ she cannot do this work (b)/ properly and cannot co-operate (c)/ us in our scheme. (d)/ No error (e)
4. The future is (a)/ yet to come (b)/ but you have a (c)/ right to shape it. (d)/ No error
5. For he cannot do (a)/ a lot of work (b)/ at a time, he rejects (c)/ many offers. (d)/ No error
Avinash is not so (a)/ good a batsman to (b)/ be selected for the (c)/ national cricket team. (d)/ No error
He insisted (a)/ but neither Soni or her brother (b)/ is ready to (c)/ work on a holiday. (d)/ No error
You cannot withdraw (a)/ all your money (b)/ unless you do not (c)/ give a prior notice. (d)/ No error (e)
9. No sooner did (a)/ she reach (b)/ the station when (c)/ it started raining. (d)/ No error
10. No sooner did (a)/ Minakshi reach (b)/ the station when (c)/ it started raining. (d)/ No error
11. You cannot be (a)/ granted admission (b)/ unless you do not submit (c)/ all the certificates in original. (d)/ No error
12. Money not only satisfies (a)/ the basic psychological needs (b)/ but also the (c)/ higher order psychological needs. (d)/ No error
15. Either he nor his brother (a)/ was informed about (b)/ the venue of the (c)/ meeting of your society. (d)/ No error
16. He not only believes (a)/ in hard work but (b)/ also in honesty (c)/ of the highest order. (d)/ No error (e)
17. Until he does not discipline (a)/ himself and try hard (b)/ he will not learn (c)/ swimming or anything for that matter. (d)/ No error
18. It was very unfortunate (a)/ that he had ailed in history also (b)/ beside the other (c)/more difficult subjects. (d)/ No error
19. This book is a primer (a)/ for managers who have (b)/ no formal training (c)/ or a refresher for experienced managers. (d)/ No error
20. This laboratory of physics is (a)/ not only equipped with (b)/ all states of the art instruments (c)/ but also with outstanding physicists. (d)/ No error
21. Each of the girls (a)/ is not only talented (b)/ in her studies (c)/ but also beautiful. (d)/ No error
22. Abha locked the (a)/ cupboard provided that (b)/ her jewellery might (c)/ not get stolen. (d)/ No error
23. No sooner did (a)/ the thief come out (b)/ of th room then (c)/ women atta him. (d)/ No error (e)
24. The amount of (a)/ compensation was (b)/ not acceptable to (c)/ either Sunil and Rahul. (d)/ No error
25. Both (a)/ the structure or (b)/ the chemical composition of (c)/ lamellae are complex. (d)/ No error
26. No sooner did (a)/ we reach the station (b)/ when the train had (c)/ started moving out of the station. (d)/ No error
27. He was a great man (a)/ he left only impression (b)/ on our constitution (c)/ but also on our social life. (d)/ No error
29. No sooner does the teacher (a)/ enter the class (b)/ then the students stand up. (c)/ No error
30. Although my car is expensive, (a)/ I have had (b)/ a lot of trouble with it. (c)/ No error
31. Although winter in Kashmir is cold (a)/ but is pleasant (b)/ in many ways. (c)/ No error
32. An animal (a)/ can be just as unhappy in a vast area (b)/ or in a small one. (c)/ No error
33. A free pass is not only a privilege (a)/ but also an organic necessity (b)/ in a free society. (c)/ No error
34. Pappu works (a)/ too hard so that he does not (b)/ fail in the examination. (c)/ No error
35. In spite the difficulties (a)/ on the way (b)/ they enjoyed their (c)/ trip to Gangotri. (d)/ No error
36. He speaks (a)/ not only Tamil (b)/ but Telgu as well. (c)/ No error
37. Not only the bandits robbed (a)/ the traveller of his purse (b)/ but also wounded him grievously. (c)/ No error
38. The old man has had the best medical facilities available (a)/ but she will not be cured (b)/ unless she does not have a strong desire to live. (c)/ No error
39. He told the policeman (a)/ that he would rather (b)/ starve to stealing to get. (c)/ what he has been aspiring for. (d)/ No error
40. The man who is (a)/ perpetually hesitating (b)/ which of the two things (c)/ he will do first, will ultimately do either. (d)/ No error
41. Money not only satisfies ( (a)/ the basic physiological needs, (b)/ but also the (c)/ higher order psychological needs. (d) No error
42. All I know is that (a) / I won’t be at peace (b)/ with myself, (c)/ unless I do not go there. (d)/ No error
43. Sooner that he had arrived 9a)/ than his friends arranged a reception (b)/ in this honour in (c)/ the best hotel in town (d)/ No error
44. Today, the cost of living 9a)/ is such higher that many (b)/ people find it difficult to (c)/ keep their health burning. (d)/ No error
45. The agitating students had taken (a)/ a vow not to return to their (b)/ classes until their demands were not (c)/ accepted by the Principal. (d)/ No error
46. On hearing from you (a)/ I will come not only (b) to the airport but will (c)/ also help in customs clearance. (d)/ No error (e)
47. As soon as I will (a)/ reach Patna I will (b)/ send you the letters (c)/ you have asked for. (d)/ No error
48. He is not only eminent (a)/ for his writing in English (b)/ but also for his (c)/ paintings on spiritual themes. (d)/No error
49. Scarcely had I (a)/ finished washing the car (b)/ than the master came (c)/ and asked me to clean the floor of the house. (d)/ No error
50. Rangesh is not only involved (a)/ in organising conferences and seminars (b)/ but also in conducting (c) / adult literacy programmers. (d)/ No error