Indian Civilization and Culture Summary


Mohan Das Karamchand Gandhi is Popularly known as Bapu or the “Father of the Nation,” He was born in Porbandar, Gujrat on 2 October , 1869. He was more of a spiritual leader than a politician. He successfully used truth and nonviolence as the chief weapons against the British rule in Indian and helped India gain independence. From 1915 till 1948, he completely dominated Indian politics. He died at the hands of a fanatic on 30 January 1948.


Mahatma Gandhi in his essay “Indian Civilization and Culture” has described the importance of Indian civilization.
The sound foundation of Indian civilization has successfully with stood the passage of time. The western civilization which has the tendency to privilege materiality cannot match the Indian civilization that elevates the moral being.
The Indian civilization is unparalleled and can not be beaten in the world. The seeds sown by our ancestors were deep-rooted and had developed miraculously in a big tree with many of its branches spread over the heart of India. Rome, Greece and many other centers of an ancient civilization were diminished or no longer exist in their former glory. Japan has become westernized and China has also shifted from its past culture. Civilization points out to man the path of duty, performance of duty and observance of morality are exchangeable.
It is a charge against India that her people are uncivilized and they do not adopt any change. It is a charge really against our merit. In the midst of such allegations, India remains firm and immovable and that is her glory. “Mind is a restless bird”, is but a fact. The more it gets the more it wants and still remains unsatisfied. As such our ancestors set a limit to our indulgences. They persuaded us against luxuries and pleasures. For them, large cities were burden and trap. People would not be happy there, because there would be gangs of thieves, robbers, prostitutes and antisocial elements there.
The Indian civilization elevates the moral being whereas the western – civilization is to propagate immortality. Hie latter is godless, the former is based on a belief in God. The ancient civilization is an imperative restriction upon an indefinite multiplicity of human wants whereas modern civilization is just the reverse.In the west, wonderful discoveries in things material have been made. In India similarly, Hinduism has made still more marvelous discoveries in things of religion, the spirit, and the soul. There is something in Hinduism that has kept alive up till now. It has witnessed the fall of so many civilizations like Baby Ionia, Syria, Egypt and so on.
Our civilization, culture, and swaraj depend upon restricting wants and self-denial instead of multiplying our wants and self-indulgence. European civilization is suited for the Europeon and will ruin us (India) if we copy it. Civilization in the real sense of the terms consists of the deliberate and voluntary restriction of wants not in the multiplication, as already mentioned.
It is necessary to arrange our physical and cultural circumstances so that they do not become an obstacle in our service to humanity and all our energies should be concentrated to develop them.



Indian Civilization And Culture” is written by  Mahatma Gandhi. In this essay, he compares Indian Civilization to the Civilization of the West and finds it superior to all. Our Indian Civilization is the most ancient, the most vital and the longest surviving of all civilization in the world. So, our civilization can teach the world. Therefore, we need not copy of Western civilization. According to Gandhiji, Mind is a restless bird, the more it gets the more it wants still it remains always unsatisfied.” The more we indulge in our passion the more our mind becomes uncontrolled. Lastly, Gandhiji says that it behoves every lover of India to clings to the old Indian Civilization even as a child clings to his mother’s breast.


1. Evolved : निकला, विकसित हुआ 2. Fate : भाग्य  
3. Pharaohs : प्राचीन मिश्र के शासक 
4. Immovable : अचल, ढृढ़ 
5. Glory : चमक, वैभव , गौरव 
6. Stolid :  आवेगहीन 
7. Anvil : निहाई 
8. Sheet anchor : सुरक्षा 
9. Convertible : परिवर्तन के योग्य  
10. Unbridled : बिना लगाम के  
11. Dissuaded : हटाया, विरुद्ध सलाह किया  
12. Indigenous : स्वदेशीय 
13. Life-corroding : जीवन को नस्ट करते हुए 
14. Moral fibre : चरित्र 
15. Deliberation : विचार-विमर्श 
16. Snare : जाल 
17. Encumberation : भार 
18. Vice : दुर्गुण 
19. Flourishing : विकशित होना 
20.Touts : दलालो 
21. Lure : ललचाना 
22. Votaries : वोटरों 
23. Elevate : बढ़ाना, ऊंचा करना 
24. Propagate : फैलाना 
25. Behoves : सही या जरुरी होता है 
26. Cling : चिपकना 
27. Shun : त्यागना , छोड़ना 
28. Unadulterated : बिना मिलावट के 
29. Insatiableness : असंतुस्ट अवस्ता 
30. Bartering : सामनो या संपत्ति आदि का आदान 
31. Enamoured : प्रसनन  होना 
32. Onrush : उफन , प्रवाह 
33. Gibbon : एक अंग्रेज इतिहासकार 
34. Ruin : विनास 
35. Assimilate : मिलाना 
36. The Golden Fleece : ऐसा वस्तु जिसको प्राप्त करना कठिन हो 
37. Hindrance : बाधा 
38. Delusion : गलत धारणा 


1. ‘Indian Civilization and Culture’ is written by ____
A. Dr. Zakir Hussain 
B. Mahatma Gandhi 
C. Martin Luther King.Jr
D. Shiga Naoya 
2. When was Mahatma Gandhi is Born?
A. 1869
B. 1844
C. 1911
D. 1857
3. When was Mahatma Gandhi is Died ?
A. 1956
B. 1948
C. 1943
D. 1968
4. Modern Civilization is based on___
A. Idols
B. Arts
C. Politics
D. Material 
5. My Experiments with Truth’ is a___
A. Story
B. Novel 
C. Autobiography 
D. Biography
6. India’s Glory is that it___
A. Remains movable
B. Remains immovable
C. Always flourish
D. Never give up hope
7. Gandhi dominated Indian politics during……. 
A. 1869-1948
B. 1915-1948
C. 1919-1948
D. 1916-1948
8. The Western Civilization has the tendency to privilege____ 
A. Paternity
B. Morality
C. Materiality
D. Dominancy
9. Indian civilization elevates the___
A. Foundation
B. Independence
C. Spiritual
D. Moral being
10. Machinery makes us slaves and we lose our
A. Moral fibre
B. Own strength
C. Ideology
D. Character
11. Modern Civilization is mainly the worship of___ 
A. Idols
B. Material
C. Arts
D. Politics
12. “Modern Civilization” is based on___
A. Imperialism
B. Materialism
C. Dissatisfaction
D. Non-violence
13. He was more a spiritual leader than a politician
A. Jawaharlal Nehru
B. Lal Bahadur Shashtri
C. Mahatma Gandhi
D. Lokmanya Tilak
14. Which civilization is not beaten in the world?
A. Greek
B. Indian
C. Pharaohs
D. Chinese
15. Who imagined, that (they will avoid the mistakes of Greece and Rome)?
A. Indian
B. Chinese
C. Japanese
D. Europeans
16. Mahatma Gandhi has written this lesson ?
A. I Have a Dream
B. The Artist
C. Indian Civilization and Culture
D. The Earth
17. _____ were rulers of Egypt.
A. Americans
B. Africans
C. Iranians
D. Pharaohs
18. Civilization is the state of development of a….
A. people
B. animal
C. bird
D. non-living things
19. Gibbon is associated with____
A. Italy
B. Sweden
C. Russia
D. America
20. European Civilization will mean ____ for India.
A. want
B. living
C. real
D. ruin
21. “Simple living and high thinking” is the base of……..
A. American Civilization
B. Indian Civilization
C. European Civilization
D. None of these
22. ____ was a spiritual leader than a politician
A. Nehru Jee
B. Sardar Patel
C. Mahatma Gandhi 
D. Indira Gandhi
23. The mind is a restless the more it gets the more it wants.
A. Bird
B. Dog
C. Cow
D. Monkey
24. The people of Europe learn their lesson from the writing of the man of _____
A. Germany 
B. Britain 
C. Greece or Rome 
D. Spain 
25. “Plain living and high thinking’ is the motto of –
A. Western philosopher
B. Eastern philosopher
C. North philosopher
D. None of these
26. Sacrifice is the sole aim of our-
A. Philosopher
B. Farmers
C. Righis
D. Scientists
27. __________ were satisfied with small villages.
A. Germans
B. Our ancestors
C. Romans
D. Italians
28. Indian civilization taught us to be more _____another?
A. Upset
B. Enemy
C. Angry
D. Friendly
29. Our ancestor enjoyed ______ rule.
A. Nice
B. Society 
C. Home
D. Nation
30. Wealth & Luxuries do not make a _____happy.
A. Bird
B. Man 
C. Cow
D. Dog
31. Gandhi ji went to Champaran in______
A. 1917
B. 1915
C. 1918
D. 1916
32. The people of Europe are inspired by _____ and Roman writers.
A. British
B. German 
C. Greek
D. Indian 
33. The invention of _____proved a milestone in our development.
A. Fire
B. Agriculture 
C. Carpentary
D. None of these
34. He wrote different articles for…..
A. The Hindu 
B. The Times of India
C. The Blitze
D. Young India
35. Civilization points out to man……
A. how to make money
B. how to win the enemy
C. the path of duty
D. the way of living
36. To observe  morality is to attain mastery over……
A. economic growth 
B. political ability
C. minds and passions
D. art
37. The mind is a restless bird which always remains……
A. Hungry 
B. Unsatisfied
C. Thirsty
D. Sick 
38. Happiness is largely a…….
A. mental condition
B. physical condition
C. disease
D. imagination
39. Mahatma Gandhi Jee used as the cheif weapons____
A. swords
B. nuclear weapon 
C. truth & non-voilencne
D. guns
40. Our ancestors dissuaded us from _____
A. politics
B. luxuries & pleasure
C. morality
D. spirituality 
41. People in ancient days were satisfied with…….. 
A. towns
B. cities
C. villages
D. mega cities
42. Our forefathers saw that kings and their swords were inferior to……..
A. the swords of ethics
B. the swords of politics
C. the sword of economics
D. the swords of treachery 
43. In ancient days the common people followed……..
A. business
B. agriculture
C. industry
D. politics
44. Modern Civilization is the worship of ____
A. material 
B. ethics
C. brotherhood
D. equality
45. Indian civilization is _____
A. godless
B. based on belief in God
C. based on partiality 
D. based on matter
46. Modern civilization is based on _____
A. realistic 
B. materialism 
C. artistic 
D. ever- making
47. Truth & non-violence were the chief ______
A. Books
B. Essays
C. Culture 
D. Weapons
48. The Western civilization has the tendency to privilege……. 
A. Inventions
B. Capital
C. Materiality
D. Mankind
49. We have been _____West since long.
A. Copy
B. Copying 
C. Copied 
D. Copier
50.. _______makes us slaves and we lose our moral fibre.
A. Machinery
B. Culture 
C. Science
D. Civilization


1) How is Indian Civilization different from European Civilization?

In European civilization is guided by the writings of Greece and Rome, which no longer exist in their former glory. But INDIAN CIVILIZATION is steady. It follows the path that our forefathers tested on the anvil of experience and found true and durable. Indian civilization needs no external guide.


2) Why does Gandhiji say that ‘mind is restless bird’?  What makes the mind restless ?

Gandhiji says that mind is a restless bird because it is never satisfied. The more it get the more it wants. 


3) Why did our ancestor dissuade us from luxuries and pleasure? Did they do the right thing ?

Our ancestor dissuaded us from luxuries and pleasures because they knew that we can be happy and healthy with the uses of our hands and feet. Yes, because if they had not done so, we would have been lost in a different world full form of prostitution.


4) Why according to Gandhiji, have we stuck with the same kind of plough as existed thousands of years ago? should we do the same thing  even today ?

According to Gandhi ji, we have managed with the same kind of plough as existed thousands of years ago because we have had no system of life-corroding competition. Yes, we should use the same things over many centuries.


5) How did our ancestors view large cities? Why were they satisfied with small villages?

Our ancestors could foresee the vices that are bound to flourish in big cities. They knew that gangs of thieves and robbers, prostitution and other vices flourish in big cities, and the rich rob the poor. They were, therefore, satisfied with small villages.


6) How did our ancestors enjoy true ‘Home Rule’?

Our ancestors followed their simple occupations and lived independently. Thus they enjoyed true Home Rule.


7) What according to the author, is modern civilization?

According to Gandhiji modern civilization is the worship of materialism and violence and brutality.


8) What did the author convey to the countrymen about dealing with modern civilization?

Gandhiji points out that the tendency of Indian civilization is to elevate the moral being, but that of the western civilization is to propagate immortality. He asked his countrymen to cling to their civilization, but shun the modern civilization at all costs.


9) What is the distinguish characteristic of modern civilization ?

According to Gandhiji indefinite multiplicity of human wants is the distinguishing characteristic of modern civilization.


10) The author perceived danger from modern inventions. How?

Gandhiji believed that the inventions of modern civilization were too maddening to resist. They could give. if they are not resisted, we would barter our permanent good for momentary leasure. 


11) What does author prefer to materialism?

The author prefers spiritualism to materialism.


12) What does our civilization depend upon?

Our Civilization depends not on multiplying our demand; but on restricting them.


13) What is civilization in the real sense of the term?

In the real sense of the term, civilization means deliberate, voluntary restriction of wants.


14) What do you know about Gandhiji?

Gandhiji was populerly known as “Bapu”. He was also known as father of the nation. he was more a spiritual leader than a politician. He used to truth and non-violence as the cheif weapons against teh British rule in India.


15) What did Gandhiji do for the farmers in Bihar?

As we know that the farmers of Bihar suffered enough under the Britishers. The Britishers forced the farmers to cultivate indigo. Gandhiji started satyagrah for their cause. Finnaly the farmers got relief from Britishers. 


16) What do you understand by civilization and culture?

Civilization is the state of development of a people. Their social, political, legal organisation are parts of thier civilization. Culture is all the customs, beliefs and ways of living inherited by them. Civlization and Culture, infact, go hand in hand.


17) What do our holy scriptures tell us about universal human values?

Our holy scriptures tell us about truth and sacrifice. They tell us that true happiness lies in spiritual persuits rather than in materialistic ones.




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