Our Indian Civilization is the most ancient, the most vital and the longest surviving of all civilization in the world. So, our civilization can teach the world. Therefore, we need not copy of Western civilization.
According to Gandhiji, “Mind is a restless bird, the more it gets the more it wants still it remains always unsatisfied.” The more we indulge in our passion the more our mind becomes uncontrolled.
Lastly, Gandhiji says that it behoves every lover of India to clings to the old Indian Civilization even as a child clings to his mother’s breast.
“भारतीय सभ्यता और संस्कृति” महात्मा गाँधी के द्वारा लिखित एक उल्लेखनीय निबंध है। इस निबंध में, वे भारतीय सभ्यता की तुलना पश्चिम की सभ्यता से करते है और इसे सभी से बेहतर पाते हैं।
हमारी भारतीय सभ्यता दुनिया की सभी सभ्यताओं में सबसे प्राचीन, सबसे महत्वपूर्ण और सबसे लंबे समय तक जीवित रहने वाली है। इसीलिए, हमारी सभ्यता दुनिया को सिखा सकती है। अतः हमें पश्चिमी सभ्यता की नकल करने की आवश्यकता नहीं है।
गांधीजी के अनुसार, “मन एक बेचैन पक्षी के सामान है, जितना अधिक इसे प्राप्त होता है उतना ही अधिक यह चाहता है फिर भी यह हमेशा असंतुष्ट रहता हैं” जितना अधिक हम अपने जुनून में लिप्त होते हैं उतना ही हमारा मन अनियंत्रित हो जाता है।
अंत में, गांधीजी का कहना है कि भारत के हर प्रेमी को पुरानी भारतीय सभ्यता से ऐसे चिपके रहना चाहिए जैसे एक बच्चा अपनी माँ के स्तन से चिपका रहता है।
1. Evolved : निकला, विकसित हुआ
2. Fate : भाग्य
3. Pharaohs : प्राचीन मिश्र के शासक
4. Immovable : अचल, ढृढ़
5. Glory : चमक, वैभव , गौरव
6. Stolid : आवेगहीन
7. Anvil : निहाई
8. Sheet anchor : सुरक्षा
9. Convertible : परिवर्तन के योग्य
10. Unbridled : बिना लगाम के
11. Dissuaded : हटाया, विरुद्ध सलाह किया
12. Indigenous : स्वदेशीय
13. Life-corroding : जीवन को नस्ट करते हुए
14. Moral fibre : चरित्र
15. Deliberation : विचार-विमर्श
16. Snare : जाल
17. Encumberation : भार
18. Vice : दुर्गुण
19. Flourishing : विकशित होना
20.Touts : दलालो
21. Lure : ललचाना
22. Votaries : वोटरों
23. Elevate : बढ़ाना, ऊंचा करना
24. Propagate : फैलाना
25. Behoves : सही या जरुरी होता है
26. Cling : चिपकना
27. Shun : त्यागना , छोड़ना
28. Unadulterated : बिना मिलावट के
29. Insatiableness : असंतुस्ट अवस्ता
30. Bartering : सामनो या संपत्ति आदि का आदान
31. Enamoured : प्रसनन होना
32. Onrush : उफन , प्रवाह
33. Gibbon : एक अंग्रेज इतिहासकार
34. Ruin : विनास
35. Assimilate : मिलाना
36. The Golden Fleece : ऐसा वस्तु जिसको प्राप्त करना कठिन हो
37. Hindrance : बाधा
38. Delusion : गलत धारणा
1. ‘Indian Civilization and Culture’ is written by ____
“भारतीय सभ्यता और संस्कृति” ……… के द्वारा लिखा गया है
A. Dr. Zakir Hussain
B. Mahatma Gandhi
C. Martin Luther King.Jr
D. Shiga Naoya
2. When was Mahatma Gandhi is Born?
महात्मा गाँधी जी का जन्म कब हुआ था
3. When was Mahatma Gandhi is Died ?
महात्मा गाँधी कब मरे
4. Modern Civilization is based on___
आधुनिक सभ्यता …….. निर्भर करता है
5. ‘My Experiments with Truth’ is a___
“माय एक्सपेरिमेंट्स विथ ट्रुथ” एक …. है
6. India’s Glory is that it___
भारत की महिमा है की यह ……… है
A. Remains movable
B. Remains immovable
C. Always flourish
D. Never give up hope
7. Gandhi dominated Indian politics during…….
गाँधी जी ने भारतीय राजनीति पर कब शासन किया _____
8. The Western Civilization has the tendency to privilege____
पक्षमी सभय्ता में विशाधिकार प्राप्त करने की प्रवित्ती ____
9. Indian civilization elevates the___
भारतीय सभय्ता _____ को बढ़ाता है
D. Moral being
10. Machinery makes us slaves and we lose our
A. Moral fibre
B. Own strength
11. Modern Civilization is mainly the worship of___
12. “Modern Civilization” is based on___
13. He was more a spiritual leader than a politician
A. Jawaharlal Nehru
B. Lal Bahadur Shashtri
C. Mahatma Gandhi
D. Lokmanya Tilak
14. Which civilization is not beaten in the world?
15. Who imagined, that (they will avoid the mistakes of Greece and Rome)?
16. Mahatma Gandhi has written this lesson ?
A. I Have a Dream
B. The Artist
C. Indian Civilization and Culture
D. The Earth
17. _____ were rulers of Egypt.
18. Civilization is the state of development of a….
D. non-living things
19. Gibbon is associated with____
20. European Civilization will mean ____ for India.
21. “Simple living and high thinking” is the base of……..
A. American Civilization
B. Indian Civilization
C. European Civilization
D. None of these
22. ____ was a spiritual leader than a politician
A. Nehru Jee
B. Sardar Patel
C. Mahatma Gandhi
D. Indira Gandhi
23. The mind is a restless the more it gets the more it wants.
24. The people of Europe learn their lesson from the writing of the man of _____
C. Greece or Rome
25. “Plain living and high thinking’ is the motto of –
A. Western philosopher
B. Eastern philosopher
C. North philosopher
D. None of these
26. Sacrifice is the sole aim of our-
27. __________ were satisfied with small villages.
B. Our ancestors
28. Indian civilization taught us to be more _____another?
29. Our ancestor enjoyed ______ rule.
हमारे पूर्वज……नियम का मजा लेते थे
30. Wealth & Luxuries do not make a _____happy.
धन और भोग विलास …… को खुश नहीं कर सकते है
31. Gandhi ji went to Champaran in______
गाँधी जी…….में चम्पारण गए
32. The people of Europe are inspired by _____ and Roman writers.
33. The invention of _____proved a milestone in our development.
D. None of these
34. He wrote different articles for…..
A. The Hindu
B. The Times of India
C. The Blitze
D. Young India
35. Civilization points out to man……
A. how to make money
B. how to win the enemy
C. the path of duty
D. the way of living
36. To observe morality is to attain mastery over……
A. economic growth
B. political ability
C. minds and passions
37. The mind is a restless bird which always remains……
38. Happiness is largely a…….
A. mental condition
B. physical condition
39. Mahatma Gandhi Jee used as the cheif weapons____
B. nuclear weapon
C. truth & non-voilencne
40. Our ancestors dissuaded us from _____
हमारे पूर्वज हमें…….से दूर रहने कहा
B. luxuries & pleasure
41. People in ancient days were satisfied with……..
प्राचीन समय में लोग अपने से ……… खुश थे
D. mega cities
42. Our forefathers saw that kings and their swords were inferior to……..
A. the swords of ethics
B. the swords of politics
C. the sword of economics
D. the swords of treachery
43. In ancient days the common people followed……..
44. Modern Civilization is the worship of ____
45. Indian civilization is _____
B. based on belief in God
C. based on partiality
D. based on matter
46. Modern civilization is based on _____
D. ever- making
47. Truth & non-violence were the chief ______
48. The Western civilization has the tendency to privilege…….
49. We have been _____West since long.
50.. _______makes us slaves and we lose our moral fibre.
VVI QUESTION & ANSWERS
1) How is Indian Civilization different from European Civilization?
In European civilization is guided by the writings of Greece and Rome, which no longer exist in their former glory. But INDIAN CIVILIZATION is steady. It follows the path that our forefathers tested on the anvil of experience and found true and durable. Indian civilization needs no external guide.
2) Why does Gandhiji say that ‘mind is restless bird’? What makes the mind restless ?
Gandhiji says that mind is a restless bird because it is never satisfied. The more it get the more it wants.
3) Why did our ancestor dissuade us from luxuries and pleasure? Did they do the right thing ?
Our ancestor dissuaded us from luxuries and pleasures because they knew that we can be happy and healthy with the uses of our hands and feet. Yes, because if they had not done so, we would have been lost in a different world full form of prostitution.
4) Why according to Gandhiji, have we stuck with the same kind of plough as existed thousands of years ago? should we do the same thing even today ?
According to Gandhi ji, we have managed with the same kind of plough as existed thousands of years ago because we have had no system of life-corroding competition. Yes, we should use the same things over many centuries.
5) How did our ancestors view large cities? Why were they satisfied with small villages?
Our ancestors could foresee the vices that are bound to flourish in big cities. They knew that gangs of thieves and robbers, prostitution and other vices flourish in big cities, and the rich rob the poor. They were, therefore, satisfied with small villages.
6) How did our ancestors enjoy true ‘Home Rule’?
Our ancestors followed their simple occupations and lived independently. Thus they enjoyed true Home Rule.
7) What according to the author, is modern civilization?
According to Gandhiji modern civilization is the worship of materialism and violence and brutality.
8) What did the author convey to the countrymen about dealing with modern civilization?
Gandhiji points out that the tendency of Indian civilization is to elevate the moral being, but that of the western civilization is to propagate immortality. He asked his countrymen to cling to their civilization, but shun the modern civilization at all costs.
9) What is the distinguish characteristic of modern civilization ?
According to Gandhiji indefinite multiplicity of human wants is the distinguishing characteristic of modern civilization.
10) The author perceived danger from modern inventions. How?
Gandhiji believed that the inventions of modern civilization were too maddening to resist. They could give. if they are not resisted, we would barter our permanent good for momentary leasure.
11) What does author prefer to materialism?
The author prefers spiritualism to materialism.
12) What does our civilization depend upon?
Our Civilization depends not on multiplying our demand; but on restricting them.
13) What is civilization in the real sense of the term?
In the real sense of the term, civilization means deliberate, voluntary restriction of wants.
14) What do you know about Gandhiji?
Gandhiji was populerly known as “Bapu”. He was also known as father of the nation. he was more a spiritual leader than a politician. He used to truth and non-violence as the cheif weapons against teh British rule in India.
15) What did Gandhiji do for the farmers in Bihar?
As we know that the farmers of Bihar suffered enough under the Britishers. The Britishers forced the farmers to cultivate indigo. Gandhiji started satyagrah for their cause. Finnaly the farmers got relief from Britishers.
16) What do you understand by civilization and culture?
Civilization is the state of development of a people. Their social, political, legal organisation are parts of thier civilization. Culture is all the customs, beliefs and ways of living inherited by them. Civlization and Culture, infact, go hand in hand.
17) What do our holy scriptures tell us about universal human values?
Our holy scriptures tell us about truth and sacrifice. They tell us that true happiness lies in spiritual persuits rather than in materialistic ones.