In This Blog Includes:  

1. About Author – लेखक के बारे में 

2. Summary – सारांश 

3. Word Powers – शब्दार्थ 

4. MCQs – विकल्प  प्रश्न 

5. Question & Answer – प्रश्नो के उतर 

Ideas That have Helped Mankind – Bertrand Russell

 Book you have to read in class 12th English is  Rainbow Part II 

Ideas That Have Helped Mankind is written by Bertrand Russell. He was born in 18 May, 1872 in Trelleck, United Kingdom  and Died  in 2 February, 1970 in Penrhyndeudraeth, United Kingdom. He was a British Philisopher, he won The Nobel Prize in Literature in 1950. His Important works are, ”A History of Western Philosophy”, “Human knowledge: Its scope and Limit’s”, “Conquest of Happiness”, “Roads to freedom”, “Why I am not a Christian”, “Marriage and morals” etc.


In this essay, he has depicted ideas that have helped mankind become civilized and superior to animals.

Humans have intellectual abilities and moral qualities that make humans different from animals. Some of mankind’s inventions helped humans to become civilized.
For example, the discovery of fire is considered a milestone in the race for civilization.
Man started keeping domesticated animals with him. The domestication of such animals helped humans in many ways. The idea of ​​discovering and writing language elevated man from a wild creature to its present civilized state.
Civilization gave the idea of ​​living in a family. It also gave the society some criteria to live a moral life. Civilization taught us to be friendly with each other.
On the other hand, there are some defects in humans that are not found in animals, for example, emotions. Emotions take away the mental peace of man, but other moral and intellectual qualities help human beings to be happier and calmer.
Ultimately, the invention of the printing press changed the whole picture of civilization. This led to the more rapid dissemination of information and accelerated the journey towards the civilization of mankind.


Conception – धारणा / विचार 
Diversity – विविधिता / परिवर्तन 
Preliminary – प्रारंभिक 
Indubitable – जाहिर / स्पष्ट  /निस्संदेह  
Homo-sapiens –  मानव जाती 
Hirsute – बालदार / झबरा 
Congenitial – जन्मजात   
Catastrophe –  तबाही 
Curbing – रोकना / नियंत्रण करना 
Erudite – वज्ञानिक 
Depredation – नस्ट होना 
Multiplicity – बहुलता / बड़ी संख्या 
Brutes – बड़ा या भयंकर जानवर 
Humane – दयालु 
Propitious – अनुकूल / शुभ 
Anthropologists – मानव विज्ञानी 
Moloch – प्राचीन यहूदी देवता जिनके लिए बच्चो को बलिदान के रूप में दिया जाता है 
Evangelicals – ईसाई  धर्म पुस्तक सम्बन्धी 
Prerequisite – शर्त / आधार 
Thence – उधर से 

Multiple Choice Questions 

VVI MCQs of Ideas that have helped mankind

1) Ideas that have helped mankind is written by__
A. Bertrand Russell
B. Shiga Naoya
C. Germaine Greer
D. Peral S Buck

2) Bertrand Russell was a Philosopher and a ___
A. Historian
B. Scientist
C. Geologist
D. Politician

3) _______was also a commentator on a large variety of topics
A. Mahatma Gandhi
B. Dr. Zakir Hussain
C. Martin Luther King
D. Bertrand Russell

4) In ___the last step was never taken
A. India
B. China
C. Germany
D. France

5) Civilization taught us___
A. To be friendly towards others
B. To be human
C. To be unlawful
D. To be rude or cruel

6) The invention of___was more important than domestication of animals
A. Agriculture
B. Fire
C. Wheel
D. Car

7) When was Bertrand Russell born?
A. 1862
B. 1870
C. 1875
D. 1872

8) Bertrand Russell was a __philosopher, historian, mathematical and social reformer
A. British
B. American
C. Egyptian
D. India

9) Bertrand Russell was awarded with ___prize in 1950
A. Pulitzer Prize
B. Nobel Prize
C. Victorian Prize
D. Literacy Award

10) The most indubitable respect in which ideas have helped mankind is____
A. Growth
B. Curbing
C. Fire
D. Number

11) Ideas that have helped mankind was written in
A. 1946
B. 1947
C. 1948
D. 1949

12) The world ‘development’ is related to-
A. Caste
B. Race
C. Man 
D. Idea 

13) For homo sapiens, survival was 
A. No problem 
B. Problem 
C. Very easy 
D. Most easy 

14) Long Infancy was a biological advantage to-
A. Animals
B. Birds
C. Mankind 
D. Earth

15) Utilization of what thing become a milestone in human progress?
A. Water
B. Stone
C. Fire
D. Cereals

16) Who taught be more friendly towards one another?
A. Idea
B. Civilization 
C. Catastropte 
D. Progress

17) Ideas pay the way for-
A. Building 
B. Development 
C. Emotions
D. Multiplicity 

18) Bertrand Russell Belonged to-
A. America
B. Britain
C. Germany
D. Italy 

19) The taming of domestic animals made life-
A. Pleasanter
B. Fearful
C. Harmful
D. None of these

20) Bird die of hunger in large numbers-
A. During summer
B. During rainy season 
C. During winter
D. None of these

21) During summer birds-
A. Remember this catastrophe
B. Forget this catastrophe 
C. Fear from this 
D. None of these

22) Civilization taught us-
A. To be unlawful 
B. To be rude or cruel 
C. To be more friendly towards others 
D. None of these

23) Who progressed in course of time?
A. Animals
B. Birds
C. Humans
D. Country 

24) Ideas gave the way for 
A. Molding
B. Development
C. Emotions
D. Duplicity 

25) The two broad categories of idea that have helped mankind-
A. Concern & Humanity 
B. Knowledge & technique 
C. Technique & Skill 
D. Imagination & Knowledge 


Has Civilization taught us to be more friendly towards one another?
Yes, civilization has taught us to be more friendly towards one another. Birds do not treat, their elder as human beings do their elders providing an old-age pension.

What is our attitude towards those ‘Outside our herd’?
Our attitude towards those outside our heard is different from animals, our intelligence enables us to give them a scope which is denied to even the most savage beast. &it enable us to give them respect.

What are the two broad categories of ideas that have helped mankind?
The two main broad categories of idea that have helped mankind  are those that are concentrated with moral and political.

Did language play a role in human development?
Yes, languages played a important role in human development, at begin when language  is not known it was very difficult to hand on inventions from one generation to another.
How many languages do you know apart  from your mother tongue? Has it helped you in any way?
I know some other languages apart from my mother language such as English, Sanskrit, Urdu etc. Yes, it has helped me in many ways such as to contact another person who does not know our mother tongue then we use English to express our feelings. English is widely spoken all over the world.

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